What is TPS Treatment?
A unique neurological condition called Alzheimer’s disease is brought on by the degeneration of brain tissue. Although people 60 and older have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, age is not the only factor that affects the disease’s development. Accordingly, some of the causes of Alzheimer’s disease include vascular diseases, severe depression, unresolved trauma, family members who have the disease due to genetic factors, obesity, sleep disorders, smoking, and nutritional disorders.
There is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease, a type of neurological dementia. Of course, significant strides have been made in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease and new treatment modalities appropriate for the disease’s progression have been found with the advancement of science and technology. TPS therapy, also referred to as transcranial pulse stimulation therapy, is one of these cutting-edge methods.
The European Union accepts TPS therapy as an acceptable form of non-invasive, safe treatment for Alzheimer’s patients. The University of Toronto in Canada and the University of Wien in Austria jointly developed it. Currently, the available treatment is used in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, England, Hong Kong, Spain, Portugal, France, and Denmark. The TPS neural stimulation technique, developed by an international consortium led by Vienna, is the only technique that can specifically and non-invasively activate deep brain regions.
How is TPS Treatment Done?
One type of therapy that makes use of ultrasound waves is TPS therapy. The patient feels no pain as a result of these ultrasonic frequencies. No significant harm is mentioned because the method employed does not have radioactive properties. This technique works by sending brief pulses of sound energy into the brain up to a depth of 5-8 cm, stimulating sound waves there. It is decided whether the patient is a candidate for this treatment after thoroughly examining both his general and neurological condition. One of the elements that influences the success of TPS treatment is early diagnosis.
The TPS treatment method is known to significantly slow the progression of the disease in patients with an early diagnosis, even though the damage to the brain cells has not yet begun or is not severe. Every day, more people use this treatment method, which has only recently begun to be used in Turkey. Patients with anxiety disorders can also use this application without any issues. Surgery is not a part of TPS therapy.
The process, which is carried out by pressing a special ultrasound device against the patient’s head, is quick and painless. Symptoms such as an improvement in verbal skills, an increase in awareness, the ability to carry out daily tasks, and an improvement in socialisation skills are examples of improvements in the patient after TPS treatment. Following the administration of TPS Therapy, there is no waiting period for recovery.
The patient does not need to undergo any additional procedures because there is no need for preliminary preparation, and they can resume their normal activities right away. The number of sessions and frequency of the treatment can be decided with the help of the specialist doctor’s consultation. Not everyone is impacted by the disease in the same way, and its progression is not constant. As a result, it is crucial to monitor the patient and decide when he or she requires this treatment.
How Does TPS Work on the Human Brain?
TPS stimulates the brain by delivering numerous, single, extremely brief pulses. Using a neuro-navigation device, TPS can target the human brain in a very focused and precise manner. The effectiveness of electrical current stimulation of the brain may be constrained by the conductivity issue and inability to reach deep brain regions.
Despite the issue of skull attenuation, TPS modulates subcortical regions using low-intensity focused ultrasound, which can provide good spatial precision and resolution. Using lower ultrasound frequencies, TPS can successfully increase skull penetration in the human brain.
Psychotherapy and pharmacological therapy have historically been used as standard treatments in psychiatry. Depression has been treated using non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. 35 Alzheimer’s patients were successfully treated with TPS, a recently developed non-intrusive brain stimulation technique, in just two weeks.
The patients’ memories got better, and they kept getting better for three months. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of this TPS intervention on other vulnerable psychiatric populations, such as major depressive disorder, which is on the rise in Hong Kong and throughout the nation, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Biological Mechanism of TPS
The fundamental way that TPS functions is through mechanotransduction. TPS can enhance cerebral blood flow, activate vascular growth factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and support the development of new blood vessels and nerve regeneration. Cells can translate mechanical TPS stimuli into biochemical responses through a biological process known as mechanotransduction, enabling critical cell processes like migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. TPS has the capacity to activate the brain’s deep cerebral regions.
The proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in culture can be accelerated by an ultrafast ultrasound pulse, which is essential for the restoration of brain function in conditions that affect the central nervous system. TPS may affect neurons and result in neuroplastic alterations that increase cell permeability, stimulate mechanosensitive ion channels, and release nitric oxide, which results in vasodilation, increased metabolic activity, and angiogenesis.
TPS is the most recent non-intrusive brain stimulation technology, but despite recent TPS studies that provide more information, it is still unclear how ultra-short ultrasound shock waves can affect neurons and result in neuroplastic effects. However, there are a few generalisations that can serve as guidelines for a variety of ultrasound-based techniques.
When Are the Effects Seen After TPS Treatment?
Within three weeks, TPS treatment results can be seen. Improvement in behaviour, growth in vocabulary, extraversion, growth in communication and perception, and a reduction in depressive or anxious mood are all can be seen, especially in the early stages.